Review: Eksplorasi Pemanfaatan Jamur Endofit pada Tanaman Curcuma dan Zingiber sebagai Penghasil Senyawa Antibakteri

Romario Dion(1*), Nabilla Adiya Maharani(2), Muhammad Falih Akbar(3), Prastika Wijayanti(4), Yunita Nurlindasari(5)

(1) Universitas Diponegoro
(2) Program Studi Bioteknologi, Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro
(3) Program Studi Bioteknologi, Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro
(4) Program Studi Bioteknologi, Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro
(5) Program Studi Bioteknologi, Departemen Biologi, Fakultas Sains dan Matematika, Universitas Diponegoro
(*) Corresponding Author

Abstract


Jamur endofit merupakan jamur yang hidup bersimbiosis mutualisme dengan jaringan tanaman yang mampu memproduksi senyawa metabolit sekunder menyerupai metabolit tanaman inangnya. Curcuma dan Zingiber memiliki keberagaman senyawa metabolit sekunder yang dapat berperan sebagai agen antibakteri. Artikel ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui senyawa metabolit sekunder berupa antibakteri yang dihasilkan oleh jamur endofit dari tanaman Curcuma dan Zingiber. Pemanfaatan jamur endofit sebagai penghasil antibakteri dapat dilakukan melalui tahap isolasi jamur endofit, penapisan dengan penentuan diameter zona hambat, produksi senyawa antibakteri melalui proses fermentasi, pemisahan dan ekstraksi, serta identifikasi menggunakan kromatografi lapis tipis (KLT) dan gas chromatography and mass spectrometry atau GC-MS. Hasil eksplorasi menunjukkan bahwa senyawa metabolit sekunder yang diproduksi oleh jamur endofit pada tanaman marga Curcuma mampu menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pada kisaran 0,9–20 mm, sedangkan jamur endofit pada tanaman marga Zingiber menghambat pertumbuhan bakteri pada kisaran 8,1–32 mm. Senyawa antibakteri yang dihasilkan oleh jamur endofit yang diisolasi dari kedua marga tanaman tersebut dapat menghambat bakteri gram-positif seperti Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Streptococcus agalactiae, serta gram-negatif seperti Escherichia coli dan Shigella dysenterieae.

Keywords


antibakteri, Curcuma, jamur endofit, Zingiber

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.46638/jmi.v5i1.167

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